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你是否有过这样的感觉,当你做一件作业时,比方说你在作业和学习上尽管现已尽最大的力付出了,可是成果却并没有变得更好。那么,到底是什么地方出了问题呢? 其实,咱们的前贤就现已通知咱们答案了,即“学而不思则罔,思而不学则殆”这个道理。

作为主讲人的Eduardo Brice,他也言必有中地指出了问题所在。不仅如此,他还向咱们供给了一个能够把作业做得更好的办法。所以,让咱们看看他是怎样说的吧。

Eduardo Briceño:How to get better at things you care about

↓↓以下为讲演全文(中英文对照):

Most of us go through life trying to do our best at whatever we do, whether it's our job, family, school or anything else. I feel that way. I try my best. But some time ago, I came to a realization that I wasn't getting much better at the things I cared most about, whether it was being a husband or a friend or a professional or teammate, and I wasn't improving much at those things even though I was spending a lot of time working hard at them.I've since realized from conversations I've had and from research that this stagnation, despite hard work, turns out to be pretty common.

这一辈子, 不管是咱们的作业业务、家庭小事、校园使命, 或是其他, 咱们大都尽己所能,做到最好, 我这么想,也这么做。 可是一段时刻从前,我认识到, 我在我最在乎的作业上并没有前进, 不管是作为老公或是朋友, 或是专家,或许队友。 即便我在这些事上花费了许多时刻, 做了许多极力, 我却没有太多前进。 我之后在与别人的说话和研讨中认识到, 这种白白消耗极力的阻滞, 本来十分遍及。

So I'd like to share with you some insights into why that is and what we can all do about it.What I've learned is that the most effective people and teams in any domain do something we can all emulate. They go through life deliberately alternating between two zones: the learning zone and the performance zone.

所以我想与咱们共享一些, 关于它为何发作和怎么应对的见地。我所了解的是,不管哪个范畴, 最高效的个人和团队, 都会做一件咱们能够仿效的作业: 日子中,他们有认识的在两个区域转化: 学习区和展示区。

The learning zone is when our goal is to improve. Then we do activities designed for improvement, concentrating on what we haven't mastered yet, which means we have to expect to make mistakes, knowing that we will learn from them. That is very different from what we do when we're in our performance zone, which is when our goal is to do something as best as we can, to execute. Then we concentrate on what we have already mastered and we try to minimize mistakes.

在学习区,咱们希冀前进, 咱们为了前进而方案行为, 将精力会集在那些咱们还没有把握的东西上, 咱们认识到自己会犯错, 而且知道咱们会从中罗致什么经验。 这和咱们在展示区做的彻底不同, 在展示区咱们的方针是做到最好,去履行, 咱们在现已把握的东西上会集精力, 并极力把差错缩小。

Both of these zones should be part of our lives, but being clear about when we want to be in each of them, with what goal, focus and expectations, helps us better perform and better improve.The performance zone maximizes our immediate performance, while the learning zone maximizes our growth and our future performance. The reason many of us don't improve much despite our hard work is that we tend to spend almost all of our time in the performance zone. This hinders our growth, and ironically, over the long term, also our performance.

这两个区域都应是咱们日子的一部分, 可是在进入区域之前,想清楚咱们进的是哪个区, 咱们的方针是什么、精力放在哪、有什么样的希望, 这会协助咱们更好的前进或体现。在展示区将展示最大化, 在学习区将前进最大化 并在未来的展示中将其体现。咱们极力作业却没有太多前进的原因, 是咱们往往将时刻都花在了展示区里。 这阻止着咱们的前进, 更挖苦的是,持久来看,这也影响着咱们的展示。

So what does the learning zone look like? Take Demosthenes, a political leader and the greatest orator and lawyer in ancient Greece. To become great, he didn't spend all his time just being an orator or a lawyer, which would be his performance zone. But instead, he did activities designed for improvement. Of course, he studied a lot. He studied law and philosophy with guidance from mentors, but he also realized that being a lawyer involved persuading other people, so he also studied great speeches and acting. To get rid of an odd habit he had of involuntarily lifting his shoulder, he practiced his speeches in front of a mirror, and he suspended a sword from the ceiling so that if he raised his shoulder, it would hurt.

那学习区是什么样的呢? 看看古希腊的政治领导者、 最巨大的讲演家、律师,狄摩西尼吧。 为了成果巨大,他没有把一切时刻花费在仅仅作为讲演家或许律师上-- 也便是他展示区的一部分。 反而,他为了前进规划行为, 是的,他许多地学习。 他不仅在导师的协助下学习法令和哲学, 他还认识到了律师的责任包含压服别人, 所以他研习了许多巨大的讲演 和扮演。 为了戒掉他不自主抬臂膀的习气, 他在一面镜子前操练讲演, 并将一把剑吊在房梁上, 这样假如他抬起了膀子, 剑就会刺痛他。

(Laughter)

(笑声)

To speak more clearly despite a lisp, he went through his speeches with stones in his mouth. He built an underground room where he could practice without interruptions and not disturb other people. And since courts at the time were very noisy, he also practiced by the ocean, projecting his voice above the roar of the waves.

为了发音明晰, 他在讲演时嘴里含着石头。 他还缔造了一个地下室, 这样他在操练的时分就不会被打扰, 也不会打扰到别人。 由于那时分的法庭很喧闹, 对此他在海滨操练, 确保声响在波浪的吼怒中明晰可听。

His activities in the learning zone were very different from his activities in court, his performance zone. In the learning zone, he did what Dr. Anders Ericsson calls deliberate practice. This involves breaking down abilities into component skills, being clear about what subskill we're working to improve, like keeping our shoulders down, giving full concentration to a high level of challenge outside our comfort zone, just beyond what we can currently do, using frequent feedback with repetition and adjustments, and ideally engaging the guidance of a skilled coach, because activities designed for improvement are domain-specific, and great teachers and coaches know what those activities are and can also give us expert feedback. It is this type of practice in the learning zone which leads to substantial improvement, not just time on task performing. For example, research shows that after the first couple of years working in a profession, performance usually plateaus.

他在学习区所做的行为, 和他在法庭上的行为,也便是他展示区的行为, 远远不同。 在学习区, 安德斯•埃里克森博士称这种行为为“有意操练”, 这种操练包含了将才能转化为所需技术, 对咱们需求前进什么非首要技术十分清楚, 就像狄摩西尼将膀子放低, 还有将精力会集在咱们舒适区之外、 更高一级的应战, 做逾越咱们现在正做的事, 在重复和调整中得到反应, 最好能得到熟练者的辅导, 由于为了前进而设定行为 是件很熟行的事。 好的教师和教练了解什么行为能带来前进, 也能给咱们专业的反应。 学习区中,给咱们带来很大的前进的, 正是这样的操练, 而不是单纯的完结使命。 例如,研讨标明,在某一职业开始作业的几年, 展示的前进会阻滞。

This has been shown to be true in teaching, general medicine, nursing and other fields, and it happens because once we think we have become good enough, adequate, then we stop spending time in the learning zone. We focus all our time on just doing our job, performing, which turns out not to be a great way to improve. But the people who continue to spend time in the learning zone do continue to always improve. The best salespeople at least once a week do activities with the goal of improvement. They read to extend their knowledge, consult with colleagues or domain experts, try out new strategies, solicit feedback and reflect. The best chess players spend a lot of time not playing games of chess, which would be their performance zone, but trying to predict the moves grand masters made and analyzing them. Each of us has probably spent many, many, many hours typing on a computer without getting faster, but if we spent 10 to 20 minutes each day fully concentrating on typing 10 to 20 percent faster than our current reliable speed, we would get faster, especially if we also identified what mistakes we're making and practiced typing those words. That'sdeliberate practice.

这现已在教育、一般内科、 护理和其他范畴都到了印证, 咱们一旦以为自己满足好、满足合适作业, 而中止学习, 它就会发作在咱们身上。 咱们仅是把时刻花费在完结作业上, 也便是展示, 这决不是前进的好办法。 而那些持续在学习区花费时刻的人, 确真实不断前进。 最好的推销员至少每周一次, 进行自我前进的活动。 他们经过阅览拓宽常识, 与搭档或职业专家交换意见, 测验新的战略、搜集反应并以此作出反应。 最好的国际象棋棋手, 并没有将大部分时刻花在他们的体现区—— 也便是下象棋上, 而是极力去猜测象棋大师的着子并加以分析。 咱们在电脑打字上, 花费了许多时刻 却没有打得更快, 可是咱们假如每天都能抽出10-20分钟, 聚精会神地前进打字速度, 就比往常快上10%-20%, 咱们打字的速度就会前进, 尤其是咱们还找出了咱们常犯的错, 而且还加以纠正操练。 这便是“有意操练”。

In what other parts of our lives, perhaps that we care more about, are we working hard but not improving much because we're always in the performance zone? Now, this is not to say that the performance zone has no value. It very much does. When I needed a knee surgery, I didn't tell the surgeon, "Poke around in there and focus on what you don't know."

打字究竟不是主业, 咱们有其他更在乎的范畴, 那些咱们极力过,可是前进甚少的范畴, 这是由于咱们总停留在展示区吗? 这并不意味展示区毫无价值, 它十分有价值。 我不会通知我膝盖手术的主治医生: “随意弄吧,把膝盖当作你的教具,”

(Laughter)

(笑声)

"We'll learn from your mistakes!" I looked for a surgeon who I felt would do a good job, and I wanted her to do a good job. Being in the performance zone allows us to get things done as best as we can. It can also be motivating, and it provides us with information to identify what to focus on next when we go back to the learning zone. So the way to high performance is to alternate between the learning zone and the performance zone, purposefully building our skills in the learning zone, then applying those skills in the performance zone.

“你犯错了咱们都会吸取经验的!” 我会找一个我以为能做好手术的外科医生, 我也想让她顺利完结手术。 在展示区干事, 要求咱们做到最好。 这本身便是一种鞭笞, 它也能让咱们知道,当咱们回到学习区的时分, 咱们应当留意什么。 通往高水平展示的路, 便是在学习区、体现区间来回转化的路, 咱们有目的地在学习区积累技术, 然后将其应用于展示区。

When Beyoncé is on tour, during the concert, she's in her performance zone, but every night when she gets back to the hotel room, she goes right back into her learning zone. She watches a video of the show that just ended. She identifies opportunities for improvement, for herself, her dancers and her camera staff. And the next morning, everyone receives pages of notes with what to adjust, which they then work on during the day before the next performance. It's a spiral to ever-increasing capabilities, but we need to know when we seek to learn, and when we seek to perform, and while we want to spend time doing both, the more time we spend in the learning zone, the more we'll improve.

当碧昂斯举行巡回演唱会时, 演唱会,便是她的展示区, 可是当她每晚回到酒店房间时, 她就径自地回到了她的学习区。 她会观看刚刚完毕的表演的录像。 为她自己、舞者、摄像组 寻求前进的突破口。 第二天早上, 每个人都会收到几页笔记,上面写着 他们需求在下次表演前需求调整的问题。 前进才能 是一个螺旋上升的进程, 可是咱们得知道何时学习、何时体现, 当想两者统筹时, 想要前进, 就要多花时刻在学习区上。

So how can we spend more time in the learning zone? First, we must believe and understand that we can improve, what we call a growth mindset. Second, we must want to improve at that particular skill. There has to be a purpose we care about, because it takes time and effort. Third, we must have an idea about how to improve, what we can do to improve, not how I used to practice the guitar as a teenager, performing songs over and over again, but doing deliberate practice. And fourth, we must be in a low-stakes situation, because if mistakes are to be expected, then the consequence of making them must not be catastrophic, or even very significant. A tightrope walker doesn't practice new tricks without a net underneath, and an athlete wouldn't set out to first try a new move during a championship match.

那咱们怎么将更多时刻用在学习区上呢? 首要, 坚决咱们一定会前进的信仰, 咱们叫它“生长思想”。 其次,生长方针有必要明晰。 时刻、精力有限, 它们有必要花费在咱们在乎的方针上。 第三,咱们有必要要知道怎么前进, 怎样前进, 不能像小时分学吉他, 一遍遍重复单调的歌曲, 而是做一些有意的操练。 第四,确保低危险, 由于犯错在意料之中, 其结果必不能无法想象, 哪怕是有一点严峻都不可。 没有拦网,走钢索的人不会去操练新技巧, 在大赛上,运动员也不会去开发新的动作。

One reason that in our lives we spend so much time in the performance zone is that our environments often are, unnecessarily, high stakes. We create social risks for one another, even in schools which are supposed to be all about learning, and I'm not talking about standardized tests. I mean that every minute of every day, many students in elementary schools through colleges feel that if they make a mistake, others will think less of them. No wonder they're always stressed out and not taking the risks necessary for learning. But they learn that mistakes are undesirable inadvertently when teachers or parents are eager to hear just correct answers and reject mistakes rather than welcome and examine them to learn from them, or when we look for narrow responses rather than encourage more exploratory thinking that we can all learn from. When all homework or student work has a number or a letter on it, and counts towards a final grade, rather than being used for practice, mistakes, feedback and revision, we send the message that school is a performance zone.

咱们之所以在展示区消耗许多时刻, 是由于咱们一般不用要地将环境 置于高危险的状况。 咱们给互相制作了社会危险, 即便在咱们一切都为了学习的校园里, 我没有在说标准化考试, 我说的是学生每时每刻、 从小学到大学, 都会觉得别人会由于他们犯错而小看他们。 难怪学生一向严峻兮兮, 不愿为学习而冒必要的危险。 教师、家长对正确答案趋之若鹜的情绪, 无意中 让学生抵抗犯错, 而不是勇于试错、检视差错、 并从中吸取经验, 咱们也只想要“标准答案”, 而不是鼓励学生去进行 大有裨益的开拓性考虑。 一旦学生的作业、著作,都会被鉴定等级、标上分数, 终究被记入期末成果, 它们就起不到操练、试错、反应、批改的作用了, 咱们让孩子误以为校园是展示区。

The same is true in our workplaces. In the companies I consult with, I often see flawless execution cultures which leaders foster to encourage great work. But that leads employees to stay within what they know and not try new things, so companies struggle to innovate and improve, and they fall behind.

职场中也相同如此。 那些咨询我的公司,常常履行无缺点企业文化, 领导们极力于鼓励作业。 但这会让职工停留在自己已知的范畴, 抱残守缺, 公司因而很难立异、前进, 然后落了劣势。

We can create more spaces for growth by starting conversations with one another about when we want to be in each zone. What do we want to get better at and how? And when do we want to execute and minimize mistakes? That way, we gain clarity about what success is, when, and how to best support one another.

咱们能够经过沟通, 为互相创始前进的空间, 能够让行为各属所区的空间。 何处改善?怎么改善? 何时决议计划?怎样控损? 何为成功,何时、以何种办法去支撑对方, 由此在咱们眼前明晰展示。

But what if we find ourselves in a chronic high-stakes setting and we feel we can't start those conversations yet? Then here are three things that we can still do as individuals. First, we can create low-stakes islands in an otherwise high-stakes sea. These are spaces where mistakes have little consequence. For example, we might find a mentor or a trusted colleague with whom we can exchange ideas or have vulnerable conversations or even role-play. Or we can ask for feedback-oriented meetings as projects progress. Or we can set aside time to read or watch videos or take online courses. Those are just some examples. Second, we can execute and perform as we're expected, but then reflect on what we could do better next time, like Beyoncé does, and we can observe and emulate experts. The observation, reflection and adjustment is a learning zone. And finally, we can lead and lower the stakes for others by sharing what we want to get better at, by asking questions about what we don't know, by soliciting feedback and by sharing our mistakes and what we've learned from them, so that others can feel safe to do the same.

那要是咱们发现自己长时刻都在高危险状况下, 而且无法展开这样的沟通怎样办? 作为个人,咱们仍能够做这下面三点: 首要,咱们能够在高危险的浩瀚中拓荒一个低危险的小岛, 在这里,差错的结果不会太严峻, 比方,咱们能够找一个导师,或是可信的搭档, 和他们共享主意,或是接受批评, 乃至人物代入都行。 或许是跟着项目的发展,举行反应向会议。 咱们也能够抽出时刻去阅览相关书本、看视频或是参与在线课程。 这仅仅几个比如。 其次,咱们能够遵从着预期去履行, 但将精力会集于怎么在下次做的更好, 就像碧昂斯, 咱们能够调查并仿照专家所做。 这些调查、映射和调整归于学习区。 终究,咱们能够经过和别人共享希冀在何处获得前进, 经过问询不知道的问题, 经过寻求反应, 经过共享咱们从前犯过的错,和从中罗致的经验, 为互相营建一个低危险的状况, 这样别人也会安心肠做相同的事。

Real confidence is about modeling ongoing learning. What if, instead of spending our lives doing, doing, doing, performing, performing, performing, we spent more time exploring, asking, listening, experimenting, reflecting, striving and becoming? What if we each always had something we were working to improve? What if we created more low-stakes islands and waters? And what if we got clear, within ourselves and with our teammates, about when we seek to learn and when we seek to perform, so that our efforts can become more consequential, our improvement never-ending and our best even better?

前进的奥妙就在标准现行的学习行为中。假如,咱们没有把时刻消耗在 干事、体现、输出上, 而是更多地去探究、 问询、 倾听、 实践、酌量、 拼命去成为想成为的人,会怎样样? 假如咱们每个人,都有某些作业 让咱们可为之极力,然后前进呢? 假如咱们能够找到,或许创造出更多的 低危险地带呢? 那假如咱们关于本身 和团队成员, 何时需求学习,何时需求体现十分清楚呢? 做到这些,咱们的极力会得到更多报答, 咱们的前进会百折不回, 咱们的作业会如虎添翼。

Thank you.

谢谢咱们。

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